The protective effect of Thai rice bran on N-acetyl-ρ-aminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

Pitchaporn Wanyo , Charinya So-In


Background and purpose: N-acetyl-ρ-aminophen (APAP) is a widely used medication with analgesic and antipyretic characteristics. High paracetamol doses can damage the liver. Thai-pigmented rice may treat numerous liver disorders due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glutathione-restoring capabilities. This study aimed to evaluate the phenolic components in three Thai rice bran extracts and their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in an animal model.

Experimental approach: Fifty male mice were randomly assigned to the control and APAP studies. Each study was divided into 5 groups (n = 5) treated with distilled water, Hom Mali, Hang-Ngok, and Hom Nil (HN) rice compared with N-acetylcysteine with/without 60 mg/kg/day of APAP orally once a day for two weeks. Blood and liver sampling were collected for analysis.

Findings/Results: HN rice bran exhibited higher contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin, ferric-reducing antioxidant, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities than Hom Mali and Hang-Ngok. Anthocyanin was merely detected in HN. Following APAP administration, mice exhibited significant increases in hepatic enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), and malondialdehyde (MDA), but lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione profiles. Amongst the three cultivars, HN rice was the only compound that decreased MDA, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6 while increasing antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase that was very close to that of N-acetylcysteine groups.

Conclusion and implications: Given the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties, HN has the potential to be used as a health supplement.




Anti-inflammation; Antioxidant; N-acetyl-ρ-aminophen; Thai rice cultivars.

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