Effects of extracts and manna of Echinops cephalotes on impaired cognitive function induced by scopolamine in mice

Giti Sadeghi , Masoud Sadeghi Dinani, Mohammad Rabbani


Background and purpose: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease specified by chronic and irreversible destruction of neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different extracts                         (aqueous, hydroalcoholic, hexane, and ethyl acetate) and manna of Echinops cephalotes (EC) on impaired cognitive function induced by scopolamine in mice. EC is shown to have anti-cholinesterase-butyrylcholinesterase activities.

Experimental approach: In this study, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of EC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.), and the manna (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, gavage) were administered for 14 days alongside scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.). Rivastigmine (reference drug) was administered for 2 weeks i.p. Mice were tested for their memory function using two behavioral models, object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT).

Findings/Results: Administration of scopolamine significantly impaired memory function in both behavioral models. In the PAT model, all extracts at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the effect of memory destruction caused by scopolamine. At a lower dose of 25 mg/kg, however, none of the extracts were able to significantly change the step-through latency time. In the ORT model, however, administration of all extracts at 50 and 100 mg/kg, significantly increased the recognition index. Only the manna and the aqueous extract at 25 mg/kg were able to reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that all forms of EC extracts improve memory impairment induced by scopolamine comparably to rivastigmine. Whether the effects are sustained over a longer period remains to be tested in future work.



Alzheimer, Echinops cephalotes, Memory; Object recognition; Passive avoidance; Scopolamine.

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