Garcinia mangostana hydrogel patch: bactericidal activity and clinical safety for acne vulgaris treatment

Kalyarut Phumlek , Arunporn Itharat , Padcha Pongcharoen, Panlop Chakkavittumrong, Hyang-Yeol Lee, Gi-Seong Moon, Min-Hui Han, Sumalee Panthong, Wichan Ketjinda, Neal M. Davies


Background and purpose: Garcinia mangostana, simply known as mangosteen, has long been used by Thai traditional medicine because of its reported antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities for the treatment of skin infections. In this study, mangosteen pericarps were developed into a hydrogel patch to eradicate                   acne-inducing bacteria.

Experimental procedure: The G. mangostana extract was investigated for bactericidal activity. A hydrogel patch containing the extract was examined for mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, in vitro release, skin permeation, and a phase I clinical study of skin irritation and allergic testing by a closed patch test.

Finding/Results: The G. mangostana hydrogel patch made from carrageenan and locust bean gum powders was yellow in color, smooth, durable, and flexible. This G. mangostana hydrogel patch was effective against Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The active ingredient,                          α-mangostin, was released and permeated from the G. mangostana hydrogel patch within the first 30 min                        at 33.16 ± 0.81% and 32.96 ± 0.97%, respectively. The G. mangostana hydrogel patch showed no                             irritation in 30 healthy volunteers. However, two volunteers had delayed allergic contact dermatitis to                         0.5% (w/w) G. mangostana hydrogel patch.

Conclusion and implication: This hydrogel patch containing G. mangostana ethanolic extract is not recommended for patients who have any reaction to mangosteen but has utility as an anti-acne facial mask.


Anti-acne; Closed patch test; Garcinia mangostana; Hydrogel patch.

Full Text:



Syam S, Bustamam A, Abdullah R, Sukari MA, Hashim NM, Mohan S, et al. β Mangostin suppress LPS-induced in flammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and carrageenan-induced peritonitis in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(2):435-445. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.051

Karnkunwithit P, Srisangkhajorn T, Jamjumrat K. 101 Home Herbal Medicine. 1st ed. Chonburi (Thailand): Pro Ampine; 2019. pp. 47. ISBN: 978-616-93290-0-8.

Intusaitrakul C. Thai Herbal Medicines Used in Primary Health Care. 1st ed. Bangkok (Thailand): Duabgjamol publishing; 2008. pp. 146-147.ISBN: 978-974-16-2629-8.

Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Gritsanapan W. Anti-acne-inducing bacterial activity of mangosteen fruit rind extracts. Med Princ Pract. 2010;19(4):281-286. DOI: 10.1159/000312714.

Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W. Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity. Fitoterapia. 2009;80(7):442-447. DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.005.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):330-333. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.038.

Tewtrakul S, Wattanapiromsakul C, Mahabusarakam W. Effects of compounds from Garcinia mangostana on inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121(3):379-382. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.11.007.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(6):401-408. DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2007.02.019.

Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(2):688-693. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.096

Okonogi S, Duangrat C, Anuchpreeda S, Tachakittirungrod S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels. Food Chem. 2007;103(3):839-846. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.034

Tjahjani S, Widowati W, Khiong K, Suhendra A, Tjokropranoto R. Antioxidant properties of Garcinia mangostana L (mangosteen) rind. Procedia Chem. 2014;13:198-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.proche.2014.12.027.

Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mariod AA, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI, et al. α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana Linn: an updated review of its pharmacological properties. Arab J Chem. 2016;9(3):317-329. DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.02.011.

Chularojanamontri L, Tuchinda P, Kulthana K, Pongparit K. Moisturizers for acne: what are their constituents? J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(5):36-44.PMID: 24847408.

Nilforoushzadeh MA, Amirkhani MA, Zarrintaj P, Salehi MA, Mehrabi T, Alavi S, et al. Skin care and rejuvenation by cosmeceutical facial mask. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018;17(5):693-702.DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12730.

Amnuaikit T, Chusuit T, Raknam P, Boonme P. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction. Med Devices (Auckl). 2011;4:77-81.DOI: 10.2147/MDER.S20935.

Fluhr JW, Lazzerini S, Distante F, Gloor M, Berardesca E. Effects of prolonged occlusion on stratum corneum barrier function and water holding capacity. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 1999;12(4):193-198. DOI: 10.1159/000066243.

Ryatt KS, Mobayen M, Stevenson JM, Maibach HI, Guy RH. Methodology to measure the transient effect of occlusion on skin penetration and stratum corneum hydration in vivo. Br J Dermatol. 1988;119(3):307-312. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb03222.x.

González-Pinzón R, Haggerty R, Myrold DD. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system. J Geophys Res. 2012;117:1-10. DOI: 10.1029/2012JG001965.

Braissant O, Astasov-Frauenhoffer M, Waltimo T, Bonkat G. A Review of methods to determine viability, vitality, and metabolic rates in microbiology. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:547458. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.547458.

Asasutjarit R, Larpmahawong P, Fuongfuchat A, Sareedencha V, Veeranondha S. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2014;15(2):306-316. DOI: 10.1208/s12249-013-0057-8.

Spiewak R. Patch Testing for contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. Open Allergy J. 2008;1:42-51. DOI: 10.2174/1874838400801010042.

An SM, Ham H, Choi EJ, Shin MK, An SS, kim HO, et al. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: retrospective analysis of skin patch test in 7440 Korean women, during 12 years. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2014;36(1):62-67. DOI: 10.1111/ics.12095.

National List of Essential Medicines. National Drug System Development Committee. 1st ed. Bangkok (Thailand): The agricultural cooperative federation of Thailand; 2013. pp. 92.

Sivaranjani M, Leskinen K, Aravindraja C, Saavalainen P, Pandian SK, Skurnik M, et al. Deciphering the antibacterial mode of action of alpha-mangostin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A through an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:150. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00150.

Revision ME. Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobial drugs. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2004;18(3):451-465.

de Jesus Raposo M, de Morais A, de Morais R. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(5):2967-3028. DOI: 10.3390/md13052967.

Barak S, Mudgil D. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications-a review. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014;66:74-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.02.017.

Arda E, Kara S, Pekcan Ö. Synergistic effect of the locust bean gum on the thermal phase transitions of κ-carrageenan gels. Food Hydrocoll. 2009;23(2):451-459. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.02.010.

Walsh TR, Efthimiou J, Dréno B. Systematic review of antibiotic resistance in acne: an increasing topical and oral threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(3):e23-33. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00527-7.

Cunliffe WJ, Holland KT, Bojar R, Levy SF. A randomized, double-blind comparison of a clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide gel formulation and a matching clindamycin gel with respect to microbiologic activity and clinical efficacy in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. Clin Ther. 2002;24(7):1117-1133. DOI: 10.1016/s0149-2918(02)80023-6.

Nakase K, Nakaminami H, Takenaka Y, Hayashi N, Kawashima M, Noguchi N. Relationship between the severity of acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from acne lesions in a hospital in Japan. J Med Microbiol. 2014;63(Pt 5):721-728. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.067611-0.

Tanngoen P, Lamlertthon S, Tiyaboonchai W. Characterization and evaluation of α-mangostin-loaded film-forming gels for acne treatment. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2020;82(1):157-165. DOI: org/10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.633.

Gouda R, Baishya H, Qing Z. Application of mathematical models in drug release kinetics of carbidopa and levodopa er tablets. J Dev Drugs. 2017;6(2):1-8. DOI: 10.4172/2329-6631.1000171.

Mancuso G. Long lasting allergic patch test reactions: a literature review. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2017;25(3):238-244.

PMID: 29252178.

Houle MC, Holness DL, DeKoven J. Occupational contact dermatitis: an individualized approach to the worker with dermatitis. Curr Dermatol Rep. 2021;10(4):182-191. DOI: 10.1007/s13671-021-00339-0.

Lazzarini R, Duarte I, Ferreira AL. Patch tests. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(6):879-888. DOI: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132323.

White JML. Patch testing: what allergists should know. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42(2):180-185. DOI: 1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03862.x.

Lueangarun S, Sriviriyakul K, Tempark T, Managit C, Sithisarn P. Clinical efficacy of 0.5% topical mangosteen extract in nanoparticle loaded gel in treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris: a 12-week, split-face, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2019;1-9. DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12856.

Bock S, Said A, Müller G, Schäfer-Korting M, Zoschke C, Weindl G. Characterization of reconstructed human skin containing Langerhans cells to monitor molecular events in skin sensitization. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018;46:77-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.09.019.

Justiz Vaillant AA, Zulfiqar H, Ramphul K. Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022. pp. 1-2. PMID: 30085565.

Pan-In P, Wongsomboon A, Kokpol C, Chaichanawongsaroj N, Wanichwecharungruang S. Depositing alpha-mangostin nanoparticles to sebaceous gland area for acne treatment. J Pharmacol Sci. 2015;129(4):226-232.DOI: 10.1016/j.jphs.2015.11.005.

Martínez Campayo N, Goday Buján JJ, Fonseca Capdevila E. Allergic contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2020;111(9):787-788. DOI: 10.1016/

Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(1):22-25. DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.30646.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.