Protective effect of gallic acid on nicotine-induced testicular toxicity in mice

Cyrus Jalili , Mastaneh Korani, Mona Pazhouhi, Ali Ghanbari, Mohsen Zhaleh, Samira Davoudi, Iraj Rashidi


Background and purpose: Nicotine is an alkaloid found in many nutrients and tobacco that can cause infertility in men. Gallic acid is a powerful antioxidant that possesses antimutagenic and anticancer activities. This study aimed to determine the potential protective effect of gallic acid against nicotine-induced testicular toxicity in male mice.

Experimental approach: In this in vivo study, forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups intraperitoneally receiving normal saline (control), nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), gallic acid (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg), and gallic acid (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) plus nicotine. Nicotine was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days and gallic acid was administered concomitantly with nicotine and continued for 7 days later. Then, body and testicular weights, the sperm parameters (viability, number, motility, and morphology of sperm), and testicular histology were evaluated. Also, serum levels of nitric oxide, total antioxidant, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and testosterone were measured.

Findings/Results: The results showed that the administration of nicotine significantly reduced testis and body weight, sperm count, viability, normal morphology and motility, seminiferous tubules diameter, testosterone levels, serum levels of total antioxidants, and superoxide dismutase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). It also significantly increased the level of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Increasing the dose of gallic acid along with nicotine significantly increased body weight, sperm count, viability, normal morphology and motility, the diameter of seminiferous, testosterone concentration, total antioxidant levels (P < 0.05). This combination also significantly decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels compared to the nicotine-receiving group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion and implications: Gallic acid had a protective effect on nicotine-induced testicular toxicity in mice. It can neutralize the harmful effect of nicotine on male fertility in smokers.




Keywords: Gallic acid; Infertility; Nicotine; Testis.

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