Jojoba oil-based microemulsion for transdermal drug delivery

Shereen Mashhour Assaf , Khalid Taieb Maaroof, Bashar Mohammad Altaani, Mowafaq Mohammed Ghareeb, Amane Awad Abu Alhayyal


Background and purpose: Microemulsions are gaining an increased interest in transdermal drug delivery. Microemulsions are stable, easy to prepare, and provide high solubilizing capacity for various drugs. The aim of this work was to prepare microemulsions from jojoba oil for transdermal delivery of ketorolac and lidocaine HCl with improved permeation.

Experimental approach: Microemulsions based on jojoba oil as the oil phase were formulated for transdermal delivery of lidocaine HCl and ketorolac. Brij 97 was selected as surfactant and hexanol as cosurfactant. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed. Selected microemulsion formulations were characterized for their physical properties and in vitro drug permeation.

Findings/Results: Water-in-oil microemulsions were obtained with droplet sizes not more than 220 nm. The viscosity of the microemulsions was linked to the viscosity of the surfactant used. Improved drug permeation rates were observed for both model drugs. The significant increase in permeation rate in presence of hexanol was due to its impact on skin integrity as indicated by the histopathological study. Drug permeation enhancements were caused by the surfactant, the cosurfactant used, jojoba oil itself, and the microemulsion formulation. Higher surfactant content showed lower lag times and better flux.

Conclusion and implications: Jojoba oil microemulsions are considered promising vehicles for transdermal delivery of ketorolac and lidocaine HCl with improved drug permeation. Jojoba oil-based microemulsion would present a safe and effective means for delivering drugs through the skin.


Keywords: Jojoba oil; Ketorolac; Lidocaine HCl; Microemulsion; Transdermal delivery.

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