Hepatoprotective potential and antioxidant activity of Allium tripedale in acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage

Sahel Ghobadi , Dara Dastan, Meysam Soleimani, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi


Allium tripedale (A. tripedale) is a species of wild Allium native to northwest Iran that its hepatoprotective effects have not yet been confirmed. This study investigated the effect of A. tripedale plant against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver damage. After preliminary studies, the A. tripedale methanol fraction (ATMF) was selected for in vivo study. Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups of 6 each  and treated by gavage as follows: groups 1 and 2 received normal saline; group 3 received 400 mg/kg of ATMF; and groups 4-6 were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of ATMF, respectively. After two consecutive weeks, except groups 1 and 3, rats were administered with an oral single dose of APAP (2 g/kg). After 48 h, blood and liver samples were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. The results showed that APAP caused a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase serum levels, lipid peroxidation (all with P < 0.001) and hepatic nitric oxide (P < 0.01). In addition, APAP led to the depletion of the total antioxidant capacity, total thiol group (both with P < 0.001), and structural alterations in the hepatic tissue. Following administration of ATMF extract, a significant improvement was observed in the functional and oxidative stress markers of hepatic tissue alongside histopathologic changes. In conclusion, the present study showed that the administration of ATMF might prevent hepatic oxidative damage by improving oxidant/antioxidant balance in animals exposed to APAP.


Acetaminophen; Allium tripedale; Hepatoprotective; Oxidative stress.

Full Text:



McGill MR, Sharpe MR, Williams CD, Taha M, Curry SC, Jaeschke H. The mechanism underlying acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and mice involves mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(4):1574-1583.

Lancaster EM, Hiatt JR, Zarrinpar A. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: an updated review. Arch Toxicol. 2015;89(2):193-199.

Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, Fraser MO, Banner W. 2016 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 34th annual report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;55(10): 1072-1252.

Chu CC, Wu WS, Shieh JP, Chu HL, Lee CP, Duh PD. The anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects of three selected dietary organic sulfur compounds from Allium species. J Funct Biomater. 2017;8(1). pii: E5..

Khazaei S, Esa NM, Ramachandran V, Hamid RA, Pandurangan AK, Etemad A, et al. In vitro antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effect of Allium atroviolaceum bulb extract on breast, cervical, and liver cancer cells. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:5-20.

Sabiu S, Madende M, Ajao AA, Aladodo RA, Nurain IO, Ahmad JB. The Genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Alloideae): Features, Phytoconstituents, and Mechanisms of Antidiabetic Potential of Allium cepa and Allium sativum.In: Watson RR, Preedy VR, editors. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes. 2nd ed. Academic Press; 2019. pp. 137-154.

Obioha UE, Suru SM, Ola-Mudathir KF, Faremi TY. Hepatoprotective potentials of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;129(1-3):143-156.

Ogunmodede OS, Saalu LC, Ogunlade B,Akunna GG, Oyewopo AO. An evaluation of the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials of onion (Allium cepa L.) on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Int J Pharmacol. 2012;8(1):21-29.

Javad H, Seyed-Mostafa HZ, Farhad O, Mehdi M, Ebrahim AO, Nader RG, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifolium (Persian shallot) in diabetic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;23(2):83-87

Usmani S, Qureshi HJ, Zaheer A. Hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of Allium sativum var lehsun gulabi on acetaminophen induced acute hepatitis in male albino rats. Pak J Physiol. 2019;15(1):32-36.

Tang X, Olatunji OJ, Zhou Y, Hou X. Allium tuberosum: Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities. Food Res Int. 2017;102:681-689.

Kusterer J, Keusgen M. Cysteine sulfoxides and volatile sulfur compounds from Allium tripedale. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(2):1129-1137.

Shirani M, Samimi A, Kalantari H, Madani M, Kord Zanganeh A. Chemical composition and antifungal effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium tripedale (Tvautv.) against Candida species. Curr Med Mycol. 2017;3(1):6-12.

Ezatpour B, Azami M, Motamedi M, Rashidipour M Mahmoudvand H, Alirezaei M, et al. Chemical composition, in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxicity effect of Nectaroscordum tripedale extract. Herb Med J. 2016;1(1):29-36.

Mirmohammadlu M, Hosseini SH, Kamalinejad M, Esmaeili Gavgani M, Noubarani M, Eskandari MR. Hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and renoprotective effects of Cydonia oblonga Mill. fruit in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015;14(4):1207-1214.

Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Alibolandi P, Ranjbar A, Mousavi L, Nili-Ahmadabadi H, Larki-Harchegani A, et al. Thymoquinone attenuates hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage caused by diazinon: an in vivo study. Res Pharm Sci. 2018;13(6):500-508.

Hassani S, Maqbool F, Salek-Maghsoudi A, Rahmani S, Shadboorestan A, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, et al. Alteration of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wistar rat: a time-course mechanistic study. Excli J. 2018;17:57-71.

Kiani AA, Ezatpour B, Niazi M, Jahanbakhsh S. Toxicity Effect of Nectaroscordum tripedale Extract on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Mice. Ent Appl Sci Let. 2018;5(2):22-25.

Prabu K, Kanchana N, Sadiq AM. Hepatoprotective effect of Eclipta alba on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in rats. J Microbiol Biotech Res. 2011;1(3):75-79.

Shakya AK, Shukla S. Protective effect of Sharbat-e-Deenar against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. J Tradit Chin Med. 2017;37(3):387-392.

Zeinvand-Lorestani H, Nili-Ahmadabadi A,Balak F, Hasanzadeh Gh, Sabzevari O. Protective role of thymoquinone against paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2018;148:16-21.

Wang X, Wu Q, Liu A, Anadón A, Rodriguez JL, Martinez-Larranaga MR, et al. Paracetamol: overdose-induced oxidative stress toxicity, metabolism, and protective effects of various compounds in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Rev. 2017;49(4):395-437.

Dastan D, Karimi S, Larki-Harchegani A, Nili-Ahmadabadi A. Protective effects of Allium hirtifolium Boiss extract on cadmium-induced renal failure in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(18):18886-18892.

Jaeschke H, Ramachandran A. Oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. React Oxyg sSpecies (Apex). 2018;5(15):145-158.

Chiu CK, Chen TY, Lin JH, Wang CY, Wang BS. Protective effects of five Allium derived organosulfur compounds against mutation and oxidation. Food Chem. 2016;197(Pt A): 829-835.

Shaik IH, George JM, Thekkumkara TJ, Mehvar R. Protective effects of diallyl sulfide, a garlic constituent, on the warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model. Pharm Res. 2008;25(10):2231-2242.

Annamalai S, Mohanam L, Raja V, Dev A, Prabhu V. Antiobesity, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Diallyl trisulphide (DATS) alone or in combination with Orlistat on HFD induced obese rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;93:81-87.

Chehri Z, Zolfaghari B, Dinani Sadeghi M. Isolation of cinnamic acid derivatives from the bulbs of Allium tripedale. Adv Biomed Res. 2018;7:60-81


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.