The potential effects of hemp seed/evening primrose oils on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and interferon-gamma genes expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Soheila Rezapour-Firouzi , Shahram Shahabi, Adel Mohammadzadeh , Ali Asgar Tehrani, Fatemeh Kheradmand, Ebrahim Mazloomi

Abstract


The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has a fundamental role in the metabolism, growth, and regulation of the immune system. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ)derived from T helper 1 (Th1) cells is a prominent pro-inflammatory cytokine in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Due to the exclusive role of rapamycin (RAPA) in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, essentially Th1 differentiation and IFN-γ production, we evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed/evening primrose oils (HSO/EPO) in comparison with RAPA administration in EAE. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of EPO/HSO supplement in comparison with RAPA, EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide and complete Freund's adjuvant in C57BL/6 mice. The weight, clinical score, and histological findings were evaluated. Total mRNA was extracted from local lymph nodes and qRT-PCR was used for the purpose of the genes expression level of regulatory associated protein of TORC1 (RAPTOR) and IFN-γ. Our results indicated that the relative expression of RAPTOR and IFN-γ genes were significantly reduced in HSO/EPO, RAPA, and RAPA + HSO/EPO treated groups in comparison with the untreated group. Interestingly, histological findings have shown that the HSO/EPO treated group remarkably regenerated the myelin sheath, but this did not occur in the case of RAPA or combined RAPA and HSO/EPO treated groups. Our findings suggeste that HSO/HPO can be used as a potent immunomodulator and as a good candidate for re-myelination and downregulation of immune response for treatment of MS.


Keywords


Keywords: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Inflammation; Multiple sclerosis; Myelin sheath; Sirolimus.

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