Chemopreventive and biological activities of Helicteres isora L. fruit extracts

Acharaporn Rattanamaneerusmee, Krit Thirapanmethee, Yasushi Nakamura, Bhanubong Bongcheewin, Mullika Traidej Chomnawang


Helicteres isora L. (H. isora) has been used in traditional medicine in Asia. This study was aimed to determine biological activities of H. isora fruit extracts. Chemopreventive effect was examined by cell proliferation assay and differentiation-inducing effect. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts was studied on the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), and cyclooxygenas-2 (COX-2). Cell proliferation assay revealed that H. isora extracts and its major compound, rosmarinic acid, showed no cytotoxicity in THP-1 and RCM-1 cells. Methylthio acetic acid from Cucumis melo var.conomon used as a positive control and 80% ethanol extracts demonstrated significant cell differentiation induction. Hexane extract of H. isora could lower the levels of TNF-α, PGE-2, and NO in THP-1 cells with 51.61 ± 0.79%, 69.68 ± 0.017%, and 69.93 ± 9.41% inhibition, respectively. The highest inhibitory effect on COX-2 was obtained from dichloromethane extract. Dexamethasone inhibited the secretion of TNF-α with 95.82 ± 0.50% while celecoxib showed the inhibitory effect on COX-2 and PGE-2 with 100% and 99.86%, respectively. The ethanol extract showed the best antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assays at IC50 of 5.43 ± 1.01 µg/mL and 22.83 ± 0.13 mmol FeSO4/g sample, respectively, while the positive control, trolox, showed the antioxidant activity with IC50 and FRAP values at 4.08 ± 0.85 µg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.04 mmol FeSO4/g sample, respectively. Taken together, H. isora possess chemopreventive and antioxidant activity. Further studies on in vivo activities of this plant are suggested.


anti-inflammation; anti-oxidation; chemoprevention; Helicteres isora L.

Full Text:



Kumar N, Singh AK. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014;4(Suppl 1):S22-S26.

Venkatesh S, Reddy DG, Reddy YS, Sathyavathy D, Reddy MB. Effect of Helicteres isora root extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(3-4): 364-367.

Kumar TM, Christy AMV, Ramya RCS, Malaisamy M, Sivaraj C, Arjun P, et al. Antioxidant and anticancer activity of Helicteres isora dried fruit solvent extracts. J Acad Indus Res. 2012;1(3): 148-152.

Manke MB, Dhawale SC, Jamkhande PG. Anthelmintic potential of Helicteres isora bark extract against Pheretima posthuma. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2015;5(4):313-315.

Vikrant A, Arya ML. A review on anti-inflammatory plant barks. Int J Pharmtech Res. 2011;3(2):899-908.

Shaikh R, Pund M, Dawane A, Iliyas S. Evaluation of anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of selected medicinal plants used in Indian traditional medication. J Tradit Complement Med. 2014;4(4):253-257.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta, Georgia: American Cancer Society; 2016. pp. 12.

W. Imsamran, A. Chaiwerawattana, S. Wiangnon, D. Pongnikorn, K. Suwanrungrung, S. Sangrajrang, et al, editors. Cancer in Thailand. Vol 8. Bangkok: New Thammada Press (Thailand) Co.; 2015. pp. 10.

Majid A, Ali S, Iqbal M, Kausar N. Prediction of human breast and colon cancers from imbalanced data using nearest neighbor and support vector machines. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2014;113:792-808.

Gaston D, Giacomantonio C. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer. In: Dellaire G, Berman JN, Arceci RJ, editors. Cancer Genomics: From Bench to Personalized Medicine. California: Academic Press; 2014. pp. 247-264.

Raffoul JJ, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Hillman GG. Dietary Agents in Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment. J Oncol. 2012. DOI: 10.1155/2012/749310.

Tsao AS, Kim ES, Hong WK. Chemoprevention of Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54(3):150-180.

Lee BM, Park KK. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:265-278.

Kelloff GJ, Crowell JA, Steele VE, Lubet RA, Malone WA, Boone CW, et al. Progress in cancer chemoprevention: development of diet-derived chemopreventive agents. J Nutr. 2000;130 (2S Suppl):467S-471S.

Dorai T, Aggarwal BB. Role of chemopreventive agents in cancer therapy. Cancer Lett. 2004;215(2):129-140.

Lea MA, Ibeh C, Han L, Desbordes C. Inhibition of growth and induction of differentiation markers by polyphenolic molecules and histone deacetylase inhibitors in colon cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30(2):311-318.

Phengklai C. Sterculiaceae. In Santisuk T & Larsen K (eds.), Flora of Thailand, Volume 7 part 3. Bangkok: Prachachon Co. Ltd.; 2001. pp. 539-654.

Kataoka H, Nabeshima K, Komada N, Koono M. New human colorectal carcinoma cell lines that secrete proteinase inhibitors in vitro. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1989;57(3): 157-165.

Drummond EM, Harbourne N, Marete E, Martyn D, Jacquier J, O'Riordan D, et al. Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark. Phytother Res. 2013;27(4):588-594.

Sylvester PW. Optimization of the tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay for cellular growth and viability. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;716:157-168.

Rattanamaneerusmee A, Thirapanmethee K, Nakamura Y, Chomnawang MT. Differentiation-inducing effect in human colon cancer cells of essential oils. Pharm Sci Asia. 2018;45(3):154-160.

Eo HJ, Park JH, Park GH, Lee MH, Lee JR, Koo JS, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:200-208.

Gong Y, Xue B, Jiao J, Jing L, Wang X. Triptolide inhibits COX‐2 expression and PGE2 release by suppressing the activity of NF-kappaB and JNK in LPS‐treated microglia. J Neurochem. 2008;107(3):779-788.

O'Leary KA, de Teresa PS, Needs PW, Bao YP, O'Brien NM, Williamson G. Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. Mutat Res. 2004;551(1-2):245-254.

Ak T, Gülçin I. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;174(1):27-37.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant ower”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239(1):70-76.

Nakamura Y, Nakayama Y, Ando H, Tanaka A, Matsuo T, Okamoto S, et al. 3-Methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), enhanced differentiation in human colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(9):2977-2984.

Nakamura Y, Watanabe S, Kageyama M, Shirota K, Shirota K, Amano H, et al. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2010;703(2):163-168.

Wen CL, Chang CC, Huang SS, Kuo CL, Hsu SL, Deng JS, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia both in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(1):575-584.

Sadraei H, Asghari G, Khanabadi M, Minaiyan M. Anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin and hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Res Pharm Sci 2017;12:322-329.

Basniwal PK, Suthar M, Rathore GS, Gupta R, Kumar V, Pareek A, et al. In-vitro antioxidant activity of hot aqueous extract of Helicteres isora Linn. fruits. Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2009;8:483-487.

Suthar M, Rathore GS, Pareek A. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Helicteres isora (L.) fruits. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009;71(6):695-699.

Conforti F, Sosa S, Marrelli M, Menichini F, Statti GA, Uzunov D, et al. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116(1): 144-151.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.