Anxiolytic effects of Lippia citriodora in a mouce model of anxiety

Atousa Bonyani, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mohammad Rabbani

Abstract


Lippia citriodora is commonly used in Iranian folk medicine for treatment of many disorders. Since there scientific data to prove the anxiolytic properties of this plant in Iran are scarce, we aimed to evaluate the sedative and anxiolytic activity of the leaf extract and essence of L. citriodora in an animal model of anxiety. The extract and the essence used were obtained after maceration and hydro-distillation of the leaves of               L. citriodora, respectively. We evaluated the anti-anxiety profile and sedative activity of diazepam                           (1 mg/kg i.p. as the standard), hydroethanolic extract (200 and 400 mg/kg i.p.) and the essence (10, 15, and 50 mg/kg i.p.) of leaves of L. citriodora using elevated plus-maze and locomotor activity. We also used flumazenil, to find out if the possible effects are mediated through gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor complex. The results showed that the essence of L. citriodora at a dose of 15 mg/kg is the most effective anxiolytic dose. Interestingly, flumazenil reversed this action of the essence as well as that of diazepam. The extract even at a dose of 400 mg/kg did not show significant anxiolytic effect. In locomotor activity studies, the essence caused sedation to a lesser extent than diazepam. The results suggest that the essence of this plant could be a better candidate for further analysis and fractionation. As the anxiolytic effect of the essence is reversed by flumazenil, it is possible that the GABA receptor could be involved in mediating these effects. 


Keywords


Lippia citriodora; Anxiety; Sedative activity; Plus-maze; Locomotor activity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Mendlowicz MV, Stein MB. Quality of life in individuals with anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157(5):669-682.

Bandelow B, Michaelis S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17(3):327-335.

Regier DA, Rae DS, Narrow WE, Kaelber CT, Schatzberg AF. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and their comorbidity with mood and addictive disorders. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1998;(34):24-28.

Trevor A. Sedative-hypnotic drugs. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic & clinical pharmacology. 13th ed. USA: Mc Graw Hill; 2015. pp. 369–381

Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Curr sci. 2000;78(1):35-39.

Singh GK, Chauhan SK, Rai G, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Potential antianxiety activity of Fumaria indica: A preclinical study. Pharmacogn Mag. 2013;9(33):14–22.

Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB. Anxiolytic activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32(7):489–491.

Saeed SA, Bloch RM, Antonacci DJ. Herbal and dietary supplements for treatment of anxiety disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(4):549–556.

Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Jalali A. Hydroalcohol extract and fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl: effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behaviour. Phytother Res. 2005;19(10):854–858.

Murphy K, Kubin ZJ, Shepherd JN, Ettinger RH. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(8-9):674–678.

Taiwo AE, Leite FB, Lucena GM, Barros M, Silveira D, Silva MV, et al. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(2):189-192.

Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Vaezi A. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil. Res Pharm Sci. 2015;10(6):535-543.

Pascual ME, Slowing K, Carretero E, Sánchez Mata D, Villar A. Lippia: Traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(3):201–214.

Ghasempour M, Omran SM, Moghadamnia AA, Shafiee F. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on Candida albicans. Electron physician. 2016;8(8):2752-2758.

Carnat AP, Carnat A, Fraisse D, Lamaison JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L subsp officinalis) tea. Pharm Acta Helv. 1998;72()5):301-305.

Mothana RAA, Abdo SAA, Hasson S, Althawab FMN, Alaghbari SAZ, Lindequist U. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical screening of some yemeni medicinal plants. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;7(3):323-330.

Great Britain. Medicines Commission. British Pharmacopoeia. Vol 2. London: H.M. Stationery Office; 1988. pp. 137-138.

Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M. Validation of open:closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1985;14(3):149-167.

File SE, Pellow S. Intrinsic actions of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986;88(1):1-11.

Rashidian A, Farhang F, Vahedi H, Dehpour AR, Ejtemai Mehr S, Mehrzadi S, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) leaves ethanolic extract in mice: role of GABAergic system. Inter J Prev Med. 2016;7:97-101.

Lister RG. Ethologically-based animal models of anxiety disorders. Pharmacol Ther. 1990;46(3): 321-340.

Do Vale TG, Furtado EC, Santos JGJR, Viana GS. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) ne Brown. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(8):709-714.

Vale TG, Matos FJ, de Lima TC, Viana GS. Behavioral effects of essential oils from Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Brown chemotypes. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67(2):127-133.

Valentão P, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, de Bastos ML. Studies on the antioxidant activity of Lippia citriodora infusion: scavenging effect on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(10):1324-1327.

Neto AC, Netto JC, Pereira PS, Pereira AM, Taleb-Contini SH, Franca SC, et al. The role of polar phytocomplexes on anticonvulsant effects of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Brown chemotypes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(7):933-999.

Farzaei MH, Bahramsoltani R, Rahimi R, Abbasabadi F, Abdollahi M. A systematic review of plant-derived natural compounds for anxiety disorders. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16(17): 1924-1942.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.